Last Updated : 17 Jun, 2024

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Flip-flop is a term that comes under digital electronics, and it is an electronic component that is used to store one single bit of information.

### Diagrammatic Representation of Flip Flop

- Since Flip Flop is a sequential circuit its input is based upon two parameters, one is the current input and the other is the output from the previous state.
- It has two outputs, both are complements of each other.
- It may be in one of two stable states, either 0 or 1.

Basic diagram of Flip Flop

### What is T Flip Flop?

- T flip flop or to be precise is known as Toggle Flip Flop because it can able to toggle its output depending upon on the input.
here stands for**T**.**Toggle**- Toggle basically indicates that the bit will be flipped i.e., either from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1.
- Here, a clock pulse is supplied to operate this flop, hence it is a clocked flip-flop.

### Construction of T Flip Flop

We can construct T flip in three ways namely:

- By using SR Flip Flops.
- By using D Flip Flops.
- By using JK Flip Flops

Ways to Construct T Flip Flop

Let’s see the construction of T Flip Flop using SR Flip Flops, which require 2 AND gates and 2 NOR gates as shown below:

### Basic Block Diagram of T Flip Flop

Here block diagram contains Toggle and clock inputs, Q and Q’ is the complemented inputs.

### Working of T Flip Flop

** Case 1**: Let’s say,

**and clock pulse is**

**T = 0****i.e, 1, then output of both, AND gate 1, AND gate 2 will be**

**high****,**

**0****output will be**

**gate 3****and similarly**

**Q****output will be**

**gate 4****so both the values of Q and Q’ are same as their previous value, which means**

**Q’****.**

**Hold state**** Case 2**: Let’s say,

**,**

**T=1****then output of both AND gate 1 will be**

**, and since T and clock both are 1, then the output of AND gate 1 will be**

**(T * clock * Q)****, and similarly output of AND gate 2 will be**

**Q****i.e,**

**(T * clock * Q’)****. Now, gate 3 output will be**

**Q’****and let’s say Q’ is zero, then gate 3 output will be**

**(Q’+Q)’****which means**

**(0+Q)’****and similarly gate 4 output will be**

**Q’****and since Q’ is zero, so gate 4 output will be Q’ which means**

**(Q+Q’)’****as Q’ is zero. Hence in this case we can say that the output toggles, because**

**0****.**

**T=1**### Truth Table of T Flip Flop

- Here, T is the Toggle input, Q is present state input, Qt+1 is the next state output.
- From here we can see that, whenever Toggle (T) is 0, next state output (Qt+1) is same as current state input (Q).
- Whenever Toggle (T) is 1, next state output (Qt+1) will be complement of current state input (Q) which means it gets toggled.

### Characteristic Equation

- The characteristic equation tells us about what will be the next state of flip flop in terms of present state.
- In order to get the characteristic equation, K-Map is constructed which will be shown as below:

- If we solve the above K-Map then the characteristic equation will be
**Q(n+1) = TQn’ + T’Qn = T XOR Qn**

### Excitation Table

Excitation Table basically tells about the excitation which is required by flip flop to go from current state to next state.

- Here, whenever T is 0, Qt+1 is same as input Q.
- And, whenever T is 1, Qt+1 is compliment of input Q.

### Applications of T Flip Flop

There are numerous applications of T Flip Flop in Digital System, which are listed below:

: T Flip Flops used in counters. Counters counts the number of events that occurs in a digital system.**Counters**: T Flip Flops used to create memory which are used to store data, when the power is turned off.**Data Storage**: T flip-flops can be used to implement synchronous logic circuits, which are circuits that perform operations on binary data based on a clock signal. By synchronizing the logic circuit’s operations to the clock signal using T flip-flops, the circuit’s behavior can be made predictable and reliable.**Synchronous logic circuits**: It is used to divide the frequency of a clock signal by 2. Flip-flop will toggle its output every time the clock signal transitions from high to low or low to high, hence dividing the clock frequency by 2.**Frequency division**: T flip-flops can be used in shift registers which are used to shift binary data in one direction.**Shift registers**

### Conclusion

In this article we start from the basics of flip flops, that what actually are flip flops and then we discussed about the T Flip Flops, three two ways in which we can construct T Flip Flops, it’s Basic Block Diagram, Working of T Flip Flop, it’s Truth table, Characteristic equation as well as Excitation table and in the end we discussed the Applications of T Flip Flops.

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SR Flip Flop